The use of firearms in the LAC is strictly regulated by the 1993, 1996 and 2005 agreements. In addition, the 1993 and 1996 agreements require that both parties strictly respect the LAC pending a definitive solution to the border issue. As part of these agreements, India and China are committed to clarifying and confirming the LAC in order to reach a common understanding of alignment. However, little progress has been made since 2003. So far, the two parties have exchanged only cards in the central sector, which, due to “differences in perception,” has led to overlapping requirements in several places. This programme of cooperation between the two countries for the years 2020-23 is based on the cultural agreement signed between them on 18 May 1993, just over a year after the establishment of full-fledged diplomatic relations. India and the United States have signed BECA, the last of four basic agreements for strategic relations. BECA stands for Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement for Geo-Spatial Cooperation. The agreement gives India access to Russian facilities in the Arctic, which sees increased global activity due to the opening of new shipping routes and available resources, officials said earlier. India recently announced investments in Russia`s Far East.
Following the agreement with Japan earlier this week, India has now concluded military logistics agreements with all quad countries, Australia, Japan and the United States, which significantly improves interoperability, as they also operate several common military platforms. India has signed several logistics agreements in recent years, starting with the Logistics Exchange Agreement (LEMOA) with the United States in 2016, and the navy has been the largest beneficiary of them. After concluding a logistical support agreement with Japan earlier this week, India is now working on three such agreements with Russia, the UK and Vietnam, two official sources said. The agreement with Russia is expected to be signed in October. A maritime information agreement is also being actively discussed between India and the United States, according to the source. Once concluded, India will have such agreements with all the quad countries – Australia, Japan and the United States. The agreements with the UK and Vietnam are under discussion, one of the sources said. The agreement with Russia, Mutual Logistics Assistance (ARLS), is expected to be signed at the bilateral summit between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Vladimir Putin in mid-October, Roman Babushkin, deputy head of the Russian embassy`s mission in India, said earlier this week.
“It is significant that the Maldives has taken a strategic position and signed this agreement with the United States and not with China, even though it is part of the BIS (Belt and Road Initiative),” the official added, suggesting that the decision could also be a blow to China`s infrastructure projects in the Maldives. The United States also strives to promote “interoperability” with the defence forces of the countries that are its defence partners. Interoperability involves real-time coordination of forces. The United States