The global warming that has already occurred poses a risk to some human and natural systems (e.g. B coral reefs).  Higher levels of global warming will generally increase the risk of negative effects.  According to Field et al. (2014), , the risks associated with climate change are “considerable”, from 1 to 2 °C of global warming compared to pre-industrial levels. A warming of 4°C would lead to a significant increase in risks, with potential effects such as widespread loss of biodiversity and a reduction in global and regional food security.  William Nordhaus of Yale University writes for Foreign Affairs and reflects on how to address the failure of the world`s climate efforts. The text of the Framework Convention was prepared at the meeting of an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) held in New York from 30 April to 9 May 1992. The Convention was adopted on 9 Adoption by the Commission on 15 May 1992 of a Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council on the conclusion of the United Nations Convention on Environment and Development (UNCA) in Rio de Janeiro (known by the popular title Earth Summit).  On June 12, 1992, 154 nations signed the UNFCCC which, upon ratification, required signatory governments to reduce atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases in order to “prevent dangerous anthropogenic intervention in the planet`s climate system.” This commitment would require a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (see the subsequent section entitled “Stabilizing Greenhouse Gas Concentrations”).   The Parties to the Convention have met annually since 1995 at Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in the fight against climate change.
 The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental agreement on climate change, negotiated and signed by 154 states at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNC), officially known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. It established a secretariat based in Bonn and entered into force on 21 March 1994.  The Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 and entered into force in 2005, was the first extension of the UNFCCC. . . .